I regularly teach undergrads about Arrow’s impossibility theorem. In previous years, I’ve simply presented a statement of the theorem and provided a proof in the optional readings. Arrow’s proof is rather complicated; and while there are several simpler presentations of the proof, they are still too complicated for me to cover with philosophy undergraduates.
Preparing for class this year, I realized that, if Arrow’s theorem is slightly weakened, we can give a proof that is much easier to follow—the kind of proof I’m comfortable presenting to undergraduate philosophy majors. The point of the post today is to present that proof.
Wells (forthcoming) has an really nice example of a sequential decision problem in which an evidential decision theorist will end up predictably poorer than a causal decision theorist. Wells thinks that this case shows that we should reject evidential decision theory. I agree that we should reject evidential decision theory, but I don’t think that a proponent of CDT should use Wells’s case to argue for this conclusion.
The reason is that there are sequential decision problems in which a causal decision theorist will end up predictably poorer than an evidential decision theorist, even when both the causal decision theorist and the evidential decision theorist face this decision problem in the same circumstances. If predictable relative poverty like this gives a sufficient reason to reject EDT, then it likewise gives a sufficient reason to reject CDT. (I think we should tollens—though I won’t be making that case here.)